The increasing degree to which hardware is becoming connected to the internet so that we can control it more remotely, more intelligently, and do more with it. For example, computer apps now allow us to control our central heating and home lighting remotely through an app. Entire city infrastructures are becoming more connected so that we can for example, control traffic lights using Artificial Intelligence that changes how traffic lights “behave” to reflect levels of traffic density, thus exerting a degree of intelligent control over traffic calming measures as and when needed. Meanwhile, “hardware” like cars is increasingly connected to the internet as cars become more computerised, especially with the rise of autonomous vehicles.